How to Value a Stock


Stock is the share of ownership in a company. A share of stock is a small part of the overall corporation that issues it. When you buy a share of stock, you are buying the right to receive a proportional amount of future earnings generated by the corporation. Stock prices increase or decrease based on market supply and demand. A company’s stock price also moves based on the market’s perception of a company’s growth potential. Investors who want to sport market-beating returns need a solid understanding of how to value a stock. Otherwise, they are left dancing in the winds of the market with no clear foundation for their decisions.

Stocks are the primary way for individual investors to gain exposure to a wide variety of companies and industries. They are also an important source of funding for business startups and acquisitions, as well as a vital component of most retirement portfolios. Stocks can be a great way to grow your money over time, but they are not without risks. In order to mitigate those risks, you should carefully consider your investment horizon and the level of risk you’re willing to take on when making any investing decisions.

There are many different types of stocks, but the most common type is common stock. Common stock represents partial ownership in a corporation and the right to a share of any remaining assets if the company is dissolved. This gives shareholders theoretically unlimited upside potential, but it also means that they can lose everything if the company goes out of business.

A stock’s price can be affected by a variety of factors, including the company’s earnings record and the market’s expectations about the company’s growth. As a result, the fields of fundamental and technical analysis are designed to understand the drivers of stock prices and forecast future price levels.

The intrinsic value of a stock is essentially equal to its present-day price, but that’s not exactly how you determine it. To find the true intrinsic value of a stock, you need to calculate the expected future earnings (out to infinity) and then use your desired rate of return as a discount factor to arrive at a present-day number that’s the maximum price you should be willing to pay for the shares.

There are a variety of other ratios that you can use to help determine a stock’s valuation, but these five are a good starting point. They’re simple to understand and can give you direction when attempting to figure out a stock’s value.